Virtual and augmented reality and pre-service teachers: Makers from muggles?


  • Samuel Taggart Ulster University
  • Dr Stephen Roulston
  • Dr Martin Brown
  • Dr Enda Donlon Dublin City University
  • Dr Pamela Cowan Queen's University Belfast
  • Dr Rachel Farrell University College Dublin
  • Dr Allison Campbell Ulster University, Coleraine



pre-service teachers, virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), digital skills, self-efficacy, teacher education


This study examined the impact of a brief immersive experience with virtual reality (VR) on pre-service teachers' self-efficacy and attitudes towards technology in education. The study found that although pre-service teachers were aware of VR and augmented reality (AR) technologies, they lacked experience using them. The intervention had a positive impact on their beliefs and confidence in using innovative information and communications technology in the classroom. The findings suggest that brief interventions can serve as a means for pre-service teachers to evaluate their digital skills and develop an action plan to enhance them. Additionally, the study highlights the potential barriers to implementation faced by teachers, including the pace of technological change, lack of embedding time and funding constraints. This research contributes to the limited literature on the use of VR in teacher education and suggests that immersive experiences with technology can foster positive attitudes towards innovation, curiosity and skill development. The study provides implications for teacher education programs and policymakers regarding the potential of VR and AR technologies in education and the importance of supporting teachers in developing their digital skills.

Implications for practice or policy:

  • Teacher education providers should consider including immersive experiences with VR and AR to increase pre-service teachers’ awareness and evaluation of their potential to support learning.
  • Pre-service teachers and those responsible for supporting them can use VR experiences as a means to evaluate their level of digital skill and identify an action plan to develop and/or update such skills as appropriate.


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How to Cite

Taggart, S., Roulston, S., Brown, M., Donlon, E., Cowan, P., Farrell, R., & Campbell, A. (2023). Virtual and augmented reality and pre-service teachers: Makers from muggles?. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 1–16.