CoCAR: An online synchronous training model for empowering ICT capacity of teachers of Chinese as a foreign language

  • Yu-Ju Lan National Taiwan Normal University
  • Kuo-En Chang National Taiwan Normal University
  • Nian-Shing Chen National Sun Yat-sen University


In response to the need to cultivate pre-service Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) teachers' information and communication technology (ICT) competency in online synchronous environments, this research adopted a three-stage cyclical model named cooperation-based cognition, action, and reflection (CoCAR). The model was implemented in an 18-week program to prepare pre-service CFL teachers for online synchronous teaching. A qualitative approach was adopted to analyse the collected data. The results demonstrate that the CoCAR model benefits the pedagogical growth of the pre-service CFL teachers, and helps them to make progress in online synchronous teaching activity design and tool usage. The proposed model also creates a positive climate for technological and pedagogic knowledge to overcome some common problems in conventional teacher training programs. The CoCAR model, which emphasises cognition, action, and reflection, is considered suitable for the training of online synchronous teaching skills among CFL teachers, and can be applied to general training programs to enhance the ICT capacity of teachers.


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