Affective variables and informal digital learning of English: Keys to willingness to communicate in a second language
This study examined the under-researched relationship between informal digital learning of English (IDLE) activities (receptive IDLE activities and productive IDLE activities), affective variables (grit, motivation, self-confidence and second language speaking anxiety) and willingness to communicate in a second language. Data (N = 183) were collected through a questionnaire from one state university in an English-as-a-foreign-language Indonesian context. The results showed that students’ willingness to communicate correlated significantly with all of the IDLE activities and affective variables. However, only productive IDLE activities, grit, self-confidence, and motivation were identified as the significant predictors of students’ willingness to communicate. Findings suggest that students’ IDLE engagement and affective states play a significant role in a second language communication. In particular, pedagogical benefits of affective variables (e.g., grit, self-confidence, and motivation) and productive IDLE activities should be emphasised to facilitate students’ willingness to communicate in a second language. These results will broaden current knowledge of IDLE and second language communication behaviour, which can contribute to bridging the interdisciplinary gap between computer assisted language learning, second language acquisition, and psychology.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Articles published in the Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET) are available under Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Authors retain copyright in their work and grant AJET right of first publication under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Users have the right to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of articles in this journal, and to use them for any other lawful purpose.
Articles published in AJET can be copied, communicated and shared in their published form for non-commercial purposes provided full attribution is given to the author and the journal. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal’s published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
This copyright notice applies to articles published in AJET volumes 36 onwards. Please read about the copyright notices for previous volumes under Journal History.