Using factor analysis to validate a questionnaire to explore self-regulation in learner-generated digital media (LGDM) assignments in science education


  • Jorge Reyna Lecturer in Higher Education - Learning Design
  • Jose Hanham Senior Lecturer Secondary Education Specialist
  • Panos Vlachopoulos Associate Professor Associate Dean, Quality and Standards, Faculty of Arts Macquarie University
  • Peter Meier Associate Professor Associate Dean Teaching & Learning Faculty of Science University of Technology Sydney



self-regulation, learner-generated digital media, self-regulation learning questionnaire, factor analysis, learner-generated digital media.


This research is a validation study of a survey instrument to assess student self-regulation which aims to fill a methodological gap by capturing self-regulation processes while completing learner-generated digital media (LGDM) assignments. For this purpose, the study developed and validated a self-regulation learning questionnaire. Data were gathered from seven science subjects (Years 1 to 3, n = 341) which used LGDM assignments during Semester 1, 2017. Students were asked to complete a 40-item online questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered at three times during the semester (Weeks 2, 6, and 10). Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify factor structures, followed by confirmatory factor analysis to test the validity of the constructs defined by exploratory factor analysis. Analysis of the data revealed a ten-factor structure – six concerning self-regulation, two concerning student attitudes towards LGDM assignments, one concerning assignment ownership, and one concerning assignment motivation. The variables empirically verified in this study have important practical implications, as they could provide educators with the direction in which to target interventions to improve learners’ experiences with LDGM. The study findings also contribute to the field by providing scholars with a validated research instrument that can be used in future studies.


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Author Biographies

Jorge Reyna, Lecturer in Higher Education - Learning Design

Jorge is a scholar of digital media for learning, with ten years of experience in university settings and fifteen years in the digital media industry. He has a strong focus on learning design which considers pedagogies, visual design, usability, accessibility, multimedia learning principles, presentation quality, and the appropriate use of technology. Jorge believes that the keys to success in educational technology are the provision of high-quality educational design, empowerment of staff to experiment, staff development via workshops, and one-on-one support. He also emphasises the development of resources for academics to facilitate online teaching and learning, training of students in the use of technological tools, prioritising students ‘learning experience, and monitoring progress through reflection and research.

Jorge is focused on using digital media as an assessment tool to foster deep learning and digital media literacies. His area of research includes a systematic approach to Learner-Generated Digital Media (LGDM). He regards digital media in science education as serving a dual purpose, as both a pedagogical tool and an introduction to the active ongoing use of digital media. Four frameworks have been developed and are currently used by the Faculty of Science for LGDM assignments across the curriculum: the Digital Media Literacies Framework; the Taxonomy of Digital Media Types; the Digital Media Principles Framework; and the LGDM Implementation Framework. This approach promotes student learning via a multimodal representation of content. Because students are trained in digital media principles, they develop the ability to communicate effectively in the digital space. Current research includes the study of self-regulation and motivation when LGDM is used in the classroom.

Jorge is actively engaged with the educational technology community, having presented papers, workshops, and roundtables at national and international conferences for the last decade. He enjoys a challenging workplace where education is constantly reinvented. He is not comfortable with the status quo, always willing to change, to critically examine existing practices, and to raise the bar using creativity and initiative. He is constantly looking to create the future and change the world of education with his passion for innovation. His aim is to reinvent education for the benefit of humanity.

Jose Hanham, Senior Lecturer Secondary Education Specialist

Dr Hanham is a trained history teacher and researcher in educational psychology. His research areas are group-based learning with adolescents, instructional design, and mentoring in vulnerable populations.

Dr Hanham carries out empirical research in primary and secondary schools within the NSW Public and Catholic education systems. He also conducted research in partnership with community organisations (Shine for Kids - Mentoring of young people in juvenile justice). Dr Hanham holds an adjunct position at Thompson Rivers University, Canada, where he has carried out research on the mentoring of students from First Nations backgrounds.

Findings from Dr Hanham’s research programs have been published in leading educational journals, including Educational Psychology Review and Learning and Instruction. He has a background in both sophisticated quantitative methods (e.g., structural equation and multilevel modelling) and qualitative methods (e.g., observation analysis and interviews). Dr Hanham is currently the Academic Course Advisor in the Master of Teaching (Secondary) program and was previously the Academic Course Advisor for the undergraduate pathways to teaching programs. He is a lecturer for two units: i) Adolescent Development and Teaching ii) The Brain and Learning (online unit).

As an academic of Australian/New Zealand Maori heritage, Dr Hanham regularly contributes to Indigenous media programs (e.g., Tangata Whenua "People of the Land").

Panos Vlachopoulos, Associate Professor Associate Dean, Quality and Standards, Faculty of Arts Macquarie University

Associate Professor Panos Vlachopoulos is Associate Dean, Quality and Standards, Faculty of Arts at Macquarie University.  Panos is an academic educator with 15 years of international experience in the area of Higher Education Development. He has led large-scale curriculum development projects in the UK, New Zealand, Hong Kong, Greece and Australia. He developed a learning design methodology for team-based curriculum design, a framework for reflection in professional learning and has taught for numerous years in areas of Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching. Panos is a member of numerous professional organisations and a reviewer for journals in technology-enhanced learning and higher education studies. His current research focuses on online learning design, social network analysis, reflective practice and digital professional skills.

Peter Meier, Associate Professor Associate Dean Teaching & Learning Faculty of Science University of Technology Sydney

Associate Dean Teaching and Learning. Responsible for the implementation of new learning technologies and approaches across the science curriculum. Specialist in clinical learning and competency assessment, including virtual clinic environments. Currently leading a nationally recognised lighthouse project in Work Integrated Learning in Science.




How to Cite

Reyna, J., Hanham, J., Vlachopoulos, P., & Meier, P. (2019). Using factor analysis to validate a questionnaire to explore self-regulation in learner-generated digital media (LGDM) assignments in science education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 35(5), 128–152.