Expert views on TPACK for early literacy: Priorities for teacher education
Technology applications can make important contributions to improving learning outcomes in the domain of early literacy. However, to fully exploit the potential of educational technologies, teachers must have specific knowledge and skills. This study aimed to articulate the technological pedagogical content knowledge teachers need to make effective use of technology for early literacy. Through three rounds of expert consultation using a Delphi study approach, key priorities for the education of lower primary school teachers, especially those teaching kindergarten, were articulated. The results of the Delphi study show expert consensus on the importance of educating pre-service teachers about: electronic books and educative television; explicit goals and task-focused instructions using specific tools; how to shape technology-rich classroom interactions; and how to integrate computer activities in language teaching. Experts stress the importance of developing age-appropriate teaching skills and critical consideration of the value of technologies for specific learning goals. When this critical stance is lacking (e.g., using technology for entertainment, or substitution of existing activities), they recommend against technology use in kindergarten. These findings can help teacher education programs offer pre-service teachers adequate opportunities to develop the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge needed for effectively using technology in the domain of early literacy.
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