Teacher education programs, field-based practicums, and psychological factors of the implementation of technology by pre-service teachers

Shih-Hsiung Liu


This study aimed to validate a second-order structural equation model and to predict the relevance of and relationships among four factors (i.e., teacher education programs, experiences from field-based practicums, psychological factors, and the implementation of technology integration). Each factor consisted of three subfactors, and a questionnaire involving the 12 subfactors was developed and completed by 362 Taiwanese pre-service teachers during internships. Data analysis reveals that the obtained data did not violate univariate normality and multivariate normality assumptions. The measurement instrument exhibited construct validity and discriminant validity. The evaluative results demonstrate an adequate fit to the second-order structural model. Furthermore, teacher education programs and psychological factors exerted a substantially positive influence on the implementation of technology integration, whereas field-based experiences exerted only a small effect.


technology integration; preservice teachers; teacher education program; school-based field practicum; structural equation modeling (SEM)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2139