Flipping a classroom with a three-stage collaborative instructional model (3-CI) for graduate students





flipped classroom, graduate students, collaboration, instructional model, student perceptions


The flipped classroom is an innovative and increasingly popular pedagogical approach in higher education. It emphasises student learning responsibility, deeper learning, differentiated instruction and more efficient use of class time. However, despite its increasing popularity across disciplines, few studies have elaborated on strategies for implementing a flipped classroom beyond its essential elements. The present study thus proposed a three-stage collaborative instructional model (3-CI), an extension of the classic flipped classroom model. A case study approach was adopted to investigate 3-CI’s effectiveness through students’ perceptions in Research Methods in Educational Technology, with 29 graduate students. Results show that 3-CI increases participants’ satisfaction, engagement and collaboration. Furthermore, 3-CI design strategies, which emphasise collaboration and student-centredness, can help college educators to incorporate the flipped approach into their teaching practice.


Implications for practice or policy:

  • Instructor-student collaborative partnerships in the flipped classroom contribute to students’ deeper engagement and understanding.
  • Instructors must be cognisant of their more important role in the flipped classroom in providing structural support to the students, which includes maintaining mutual interaction, building a social learning environment and facilitating knowledge construction.
  • Instructors need to pay attention to the quality, length and content of lecture videos and reading material; quizzes after watching the video can check and reinforce students’ understanding.


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How to Cite

Chiang, F.-K., & Wu, Z. (2021). Flipping a classroom with a three-stage collaborative instructional model (3-CI) for graduate students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 37(4), 51–67. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.6330